Are penalty shoot-outs racist?

Billsberry, Jon, Nelson, Patrick, Van Meurs, Nathalie ORCID logoORCID: and Edwards, Gareth (2007) Are penalty shoot-outs racist? Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6 . pp. 96-98. ISSN 1303-2968 [Article]


The acceptance of penalty shoot-outs in the knockout stages of international football tournaments is based on the belief that they have face validity by involving a football skill, that they have a clear and quick decision criterion that settles the result shortly after the end of the game, and that they do not offer any in-built advantage to either of the competing nations. Following events in the 2006 World Cup, we decided to investigate whether there are grounds to believe that the results of penalty shoot-outs are predetermined. Specifically, we considered whether characteristics of national cultures explain the results of penalty shoot-outs and whether penalty shoot-outs offer an advantage to any nation.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey.
Supplementum 10.
Research Areas: A. > Business School > International Management and Innovation
A. > Business School > International Management and Innovation > International and Cross-cultural Management group
Item ID: 8178
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Devika Mohan
Date Deposited: 12 Oct 2011 05:53
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2016 14:23

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