Playgrounds - risks, benefits and choices

Ball, David J. ORCID logoORCID: (2002) Playgrounds - risks, benefits and choices. HSE contract research report 426/2002 . HSE Books. ISBN 0717623408. [Book]

Download (1MB) | Preview


This report describes the first detailed strategic risk assessment of outdoor playgrounds in the UK for
over a decade. It also reviews international research on risk factors. In summary, the risk of injury on
UK playgrounds is found to be modest compared with the risks of many other activities in which
children are encouraged, for accepted reasons, to participate. The main risk factors on playgrounds are
found to be behaviour, equipment height, and body orientation in falls to the ground (not necessarily in
that order). Scientific evidence of the effectiveness of compliant undersurfacing as a risk mitigation
measure is mixed. While some research points to a positive benefit the associated risk factor is
relatively small and the question remains of how the measure affects child safety in the round. From a
legal perspective, the question also arises as to whether the projected benefit, if accepted, is sufficient
to meet the British safety criterion of reasonable practicability. It is noted that over the past decade,
during which there have been many playground safety interventions, coupled perhaps with less usage
of playgrounds, there is as yet no sign of a downward trendin overall numbers of injury cases.
Importantly, there is a view that play provision may have reduced in quantity and possibly also in
quality. This, it is thought, has been brought about by concern over accidents, litigation, cost of safety
measures et cetera. A problem for play providers is that these concerns are very tangible, whereas the
benefits of play, social, physical and psychological are far less easily quantified. The appropriate
balance between play benefits, one of which is considered by leading play agencies to be the
opportunity to experience real risk, and safety on playgrounds, is a social and not a scientific matter,
and may warrant careful reconsideration. Some risk management measures are suggested which
might be helpful. It is also recommended that, in the interests of child safety, risk assessment should
be applied to the activities of children both on and off playgrounds to safeguard against plausible
risktransfer mechanisms and to optimise child safety overall.
This report and the work it describes were funded by the Health and Safety Executive. Its contents,
including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors and do not necessarily
reflect HSE policy.

Item Type: Book
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology
A. > School of Science and Technology > Centre for Decision Analysis and Risk Management (DARM)
Item ID: 4990
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Devika Mohan
Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2010 05:38
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2022 02:48

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Activity Overview
6 month trend
6 month trend

Additional statistics are available via IRStats2.