Prediabetes and the risk of type 2 diabetes: investigating the roles of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the Lifelines Cohort Study

Deschênes, Sonya S. ORCID logoORCID:, Inerney, Amy Mc, Nearchou, Finiki, Byrne, Brendan, Nouwen, Arie ORCID logoORCID: and Schmitz, Norbert (2023) Prediabetes and the risk of type 2 diabetes: investigating the roles of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the Lifelines Cohort Study. Diabetic Medicine . ISSN 0742-3071 [Article] (Published online first) (doi:10.1111/dme.15061)

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Depression and anxiety may increase the risk of progressing from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. The present study examined the interactions between prediabetes status and elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms with the risk of type 2 diabetes.


Participants (N=72,428) were adults aged 40 years and above without diabetes at baseline from the Lifelines Cohort Study (58% female; mean age=51.4 years). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview screened for elevated symptoms of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels determined prediabetes status at baseline (2007-2013), and HbA1c and self-reported diabetes diagnoses determined diabetes status at follow-up (2014-2017). Groups were formed for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, and prediabetes status at baseline (elevated depressive/anxiety symptoms with prediabetes, elevated depressive/anxiety symptoms alone, and prediabetes alone), and compared to a reference group (no prediabetes or anxiety/depression) on the likelihood of developing diabetes during the follow-up period.


N=1,300 (1.8%) participants developed diabetes. While prediabetes alone was associated with incident diabetes (OR=5.94; 95% CI=5.10-6.90, p<.001), the group with combined prediabetes and depressive symptoms had the highest likelihood of developing diabetes over follow-up (OR=8.29; 95% CI=5.58-12.32, p<.001). Similar results were found for prediabetes and anxiety symptoms (OR=6.57; 95% CI=4.62-9.33, p<.001), compared to prediabetes alone (OR=6.09; 95% CI=5.23-7.11, p<.001), though with a smaller effect. The interaction between depressive symptoms and prediabetes was synergistic in age-and-sex adjusted analyses.


Individuals with elevated depressive, and to some extent anxiety, symptoms in combination with prediabetes may represent a high-risk subgroup for type 2 diabetes.

Item Type: Article
Sustainable Development Goals:
Keywords (uncontrolled): Endocrinology, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Internal Medicine
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Psychology
Item ID: 37473
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Jisc Publications Router
Date Deposited: 17 Feb 2023 12:11
Last Modified: 20 Feb 2023 09:46

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