On the morphological deviation in additive manufacturing of porous Ti6Al4V scaffold: a design consideration

Naghavi, Seyed Ataollah ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6111-8163, Wang, Haoyu, Varma, Swastina Nath, Tamaddon, Maryam ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4669-3597, Marghoub, Arsalan ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0839-576X, Galbraith, Rex, Galbraith, Jane, Moazen, Mehran ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9951-2975, Hua, Jia ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3558-2058, Xu, Wei and Liu, Chaozong ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9854-4043 (2022) On the morphological deviation in additive manufacturing of porous Ti6Al4V scaffold: a design consideration. Materials, 15 (14) , 4729. ISSN 1996-1944 [Article] (doi:10.3390/ma15144729)

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Abstract

Additively manufactured Ti scaffolds have been used for bone replacement and orthopaedic applications. In these applications, both morphological and mechanical properties are important for their in vivo performance. Additively manufactured Ti6Al4V triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) scaffolds with diamond and gyroid structures are known to have high stiffness and high osseointegration properties, respectively. However, morphological deviations between the as-designed and as-built types of these scaffolds have not been studied before. In this study, the morphological and mechanical properties of diamond and gyroid scaffolds at macro and microscales were examined. The results demonstrated that the mean printed strut thickness was greater than the designed target value. For diamond scaffolds, the deviation increased from 7.5 μm (2.5% excess) for vertical struts to 105.4 μm (35.1% excess) for horizontal struts. For the gyroid design, the corresponding deviations were larger, ranging from 12.6 μm (4.2% excess) to 198.6 μm (66.2% excess). The mean printed pore size was less than the designed target value. For diamonds, the deviation of the mean pore size from the designed value increased from 33.1 μm (-3.0% excess) for vertical struts to 92.8 μm (-8.4% excess) for horizontal struts. The corresponding deviation for gyroids was larger, ranging from 23.8 μm (-3.0% excess) to 168.7 μm (-21.1% excess). Compressive Young's modulus of the bulk sample, gyroid and diamond scaffolds was calculated to be 35.8 GPa, 6.81 GPa and 7.59 GPa, respectively, via the global compression method. The corresponding yield strength of the samples was measured to be 1012, 108 and 134 MPa. Average microhardness and Young's modulus from α and β phases of Ti6Al4V from scaffold struts were calculated to be 4.1 GPa and 131 GPa, respectively. The extracted morphology and mechanical properties in this study could help understand the deviation between the as-design and as-built matrices, which could help develop a design compensation strategy before the fabrication of the scaffolds.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Additive Manufacturing: Volume II)
Keywords (uncontrolled): additive manufacturing; geometry deviation; mechanical properties; nanoindentation; surface roughness; Ti6Al4V scaffolds; bone scaffolds
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 35564
Notes on copyright: Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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Depositing User: Jisc Publications Router
Date Deposited: 16 Aug 2022 08:54
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2022 09:30
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/35564

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