Development and validation of the Music Cognitive Test: a music-based cognitive screening test

Mangiacotti, Anthony ORCID logoORCID:, Cipriani, Giovanna, Ward, Emma V. ORCID logoORCID:, Franco, Fabia ORCID logoORCID: and Biasutti, Michele (2022) Development and validation of the Music Cognitive Test: a music-based cognitive screening test. Psychology of Music . ISSN 0305-7356 [Article] (Published online first) (doi:10.1177/03057356221100851)

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Specific tools to measure the cognitive benefits of music therapy and music-rehabilitation training available to music therapists are few and empirically weak: they are mostly psychometrically unrefined or based on unclear tasks and scoring protocols; they do not take into consideration distinct cognitive functions or are based on exclusively observational protocols. To overcome these limitations, we developed a 15-min cognitive screening tool suitable for music therapists, MCT (Music Cognitive Test), which assesses cognitive abilities stimulated by music-making activities (e.g., attentional, verbal and executive functions, short- and long-term memory) by including music-based items. MCT was validated with 335 participants (aged 18-100y.o.) presenting a range of cognitive levels, from healthy cognition to severe impairment. MCT correlated strongly and positively with well-known tests: MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination), MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and SMMSE (Severe Mini-Mental State Examination). MCT also displayed excellent sensitivity in identifying impaired individuals according to both MMSE and MoCA diagnostic criteria (99.4% and 93.0%, respectively), and excellent specificity in identifying healthy participants based on MMSE (93.5%) and MoCA (97.8%) criteria. Overall, results highlight the reliability of this novel brief music-focused cognitive screening test, to enable music therapists to independently and consistently monitor the effectiveness of their intervention on cognitive functions.

Item Type: Article
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Psychology
Item ID: 35030
Notes on copyright: Mangiacotti A, Cipriani G, Ward E, Franco F, Biasutti M. Development and validation of the Music Cognitive Test: A music-based cognitive screening test. Psychology of Music. July 2022. doi:10.1177/03057356221100851. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). DOI: 10.1177/03057356221100851
Published version: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (
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Depositing User: Fabia Franco
Date Deposited: 10 May 2022 08:53
Last Modified: 13 Dec 2022 04:43

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