Comprehensive framework for human health risk assessment of nanopesticides

Kah, Melanie ORCID logoORCID:, Johnston, Linda J. ORCID logoORCID:, Kookana, Rai S. ORCID logoORCID:, Bruce, Wendy, Haase, Andrea ORCID logoORCID:, Ritz, Vera, Dinglasan, Jordan, Doak, Shareen, Garelick, Hemda ORCID logoORCID: and Gubala, Vladimir (2021) Comprehensive framework for human health risk assessment of nanopesticides. Nature Nanotechnology, 16 (9) . pp. 955-964. ISSN 1748-3387 [Article] (doi:10.1038/s41565-021-00964-7)

PDF - Final accepted version (with author's formatting)
Download (1MB) | Preview


Nanopesticides are not only in an advanced state of research and development but have started to appear on the market. Industry and regulatory agencies need a consolidated and comprehensive framework and guidance for human health risk assessments. In this perspective we develop such a comprehensive framework by exploring two case studies from relevant product types: an active ingredient delivered with a nanocarrier system, and a nanoparticle as an active ingredient. For a nanocarrier system, three entities are tracked during the assessment: the nanocarrier–active ingredient complex, the empty nanocarrier remaining after the complete release of the active ingredient, and the released active ingredient. For the nanoparticle of pure active ingredient, only two entities are relevant: the nanoparticle and the released ions. We suggest important adaptations of the existing pesticide framework to determine the relevant nanopesticide entities and their concentrations for toxicity testing. Depending on the nature of the nanopesticides, additional data requirements, such as those pertaining to durability in biological media and potential for crossing biological barriers, have also been identified. Overall, our framework suggests a tiered approach for human health risk assessment, which is applicable for a range of nanopesticide products to support regulators and industry in making informed decisions on nanopesticide submissions. Brief summaries of suitable methods including references to existing standards (if available) have been included together with an analysis of current knowledge gaps. Our study is an important step towards a harmonized approach accepted by regulatory agencies for assessing nanopesticides.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The Springer Nature Content Sharing Initiative [] provides access to view-only version of the published full-text subscription article via the SharedIt link:
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 34162
Notes on copyright: This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Hemda Garelick
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2021 17:35
Last Modified: 20 Feb 2023 16:04

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Activity Overview
6 month trend
6 month trend

Additional statistics are available via IRStats2.