Trade negotiations: teaching consensus

Hawthorne, Helen ORCID logoORCID: (2021) Trade negotiations: teaching consensus. Review of International Political Economy . ISSN 0969-2290 [Article] (Published online first) (doi:10.1080/09692290.2021.2005661)

[img] PDF - Final accepted version (with author's formatting)
Restricted to Repository staff and depositor only until 23 May 2023.

Download (552kB) |


International negotiations, particularly in international organisations with a large number of members, can be long and fraught. Reaching consensus between a large number of countries is not an easy task and this point is often ignored in news reports relating to international negotiations. This article argues that when teaching students about the conduct of international negotiations, their understanding can be greatly enhanced by the use of active learning techniques such as role playing, simulations and games. However, much of the literature describes simulations which take time to prepare and are often run over several hours or days. This article argues that we need to develop shorter, seminar length simulations which students can relate to, in order to help their understanding of the issues and processes around negotiations. Highlighting the consensus process in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and drawing on experience of teaching students about the WTO, this article elaborates a seminar length exercise which can be used to illustrate some of the negotiation processes in the WTO, while at the same time teaching students about the process and difficulties of consensus building with a familiar scenario.

Item Type: Article
Research Areas: A. > School of Law > Law and Politics
Item ID: 34158
Notes on copyright: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Review of International Political Economy on 23 Nov 2021, available online:
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Helen Hawthorne
Date Deposited: 12 Nov 2021 10:47
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2022 11:23

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Activity Overview
6 month trend
6 month trend

Additional statistics are available via IRStats2.