Beyond agriculture: alternative geographies of rural land investment and place effects across the United Kingdom

Livingstone, Nicola, Gallent, Nick, Hamiduddin, Iqbal, Juntti, Meri ORCID logoORCID: and Stirling, Phoebe (2021) Beyond agriculture: alternative geographies of rural land investment and place effects across the United Kingdom. Land, 10 (11) , 1153. ISSN 2073-445X [Article] (doi:10.3390/land10111153)

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Global land ownership patterns have been shifting in recent decades, as institutional and non-traditional investors redirect capital into rural areas. Such investment is a stimulating alternative for innovative profit-driven land uses that move beyond agriculture. This paper explores how ‘new money’ economies have created place effects in three rural case studies across the United Kingdom, through concepts of built, natural, social, and economic capital. The case studies are informed by secondary research, site visits, and interviews, providing snapshots of investment impact. They represent diverse transformations in rural land use via new forms of direct investment, active investment, and processes of financing rather than financialisation, with distinct spatial and temporal characteristics. The case studies include new wine production in Kent, England; transforming the Menie Estate into Trump International Golf Links Scotland (TIGLS); and farm diversification in Northern Ireland. The conclusions tell three investment stories, where place effects reflect the dichotomies, contestation, and symbiosis between investors and local contexts. New land uses create place effects where economic potential often conflicts with natural capital impacts, although they foster knowledge creation and exchange. The underlying values of the investors and their navigation of local politics also have key roles to play in shaping the built, natural, social, and economic place effects.

Item Type: Article
Research Areas: A. > School of Law > Law and Politics
Item ID: 34108
Notes on copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
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Depositing User: Meri Juntti
Date Deposited: 29 Oct 2021 17:51
Last Modified: 09 Feb 2022 10:44

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