Snake venoms in diagnostic hemostasis and thrombosis

Moore, Gary W. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2987-281X (2022) Snake venoms in diagnostic hemostasis and thrombosis. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 48 (02) . pp. 145-160. ISSN 0094-6176 [Article] (doi:10.1055/s-0041-1732465)

Abstract

Snake venoms have evolved primarily to immobilize and kill prey, and consequently, they contain some of the most potent natural toxins. Part of that armory is a range of hemotoxic components that affect every area of hemostasis, which we have harnessed to great effect in the study and diagnosis of hemostatic disorders. The most widely used are those that affect coagulation, such as thrombin-like enzymes unaffected by heparin and direct thrombin inhibitors, which can help confirm or dispute their presence in plasma. The liquid gold of coagulation activators is Russell's viper venom, since it contains activators of factor X and factor V. It is used in a range of clotting-based assays, such as assessment of factor X and factor V deficiencies, protein C and protein S deficiencies, activated protein C resistance, and probably the most important test for lupus anticoagulants, the dilute Russell's viper venom time. Activators of prothrombin, such as oscutarin C from Coastal Taipan venom and ecarin from saw-scaled viper venom, are employed in prothrombin activity assays and lupus anticoagulant detection, and ecarin has a valuable role in quantitative assays of direct thrombin inhibitors. Snake venoms affecting primary hemostasis include botrocetin from the jararaca, which can be used to assay von Willebrand factor activity, and convulxin from the cascavel, which can be used to detect deficiency of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI. This article takes the reader to every area of the diagnostic hemostasis laboratory to appreciate the myriad applications of snake venoms available in diagnostic practice.

Item Type: Article
Keywords (uncontrolled): Hematology, Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology
Item ID: 33747
Depositing User: Jisc Publications Router
Date Deposited: 23 Aug 2021 09:45
Last Modified: 29 Jun 2022 08:57
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/33747

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