Mapping inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding in low- and middle-income countries, 2000–2018

Bhattacharjee, Natalia V., Schaeffer, Lauren E. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9761-6332, Hay, Simon I. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0611-7272, Lu, Dan, Schipp, Megan F., Lazzar-Atwood, Alice, Donkers, Katie M., Abady, Gdiom Gebreheat, Abd-Allah, Foad, Abdelalim, Ahmed, Abebo, Zeleke Hailemariam, Abejie, Ayenew Negesse, Abosetugn, Akine Eshete, Abreu, Lucas Guimarães, Abrigo, Michael R. M., Abu-Gharbieh, Eman, Abushouk, Abdelrahman I., Adamu, Aishatu L., Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi, Adegbosin, Adeyinka Emmanuel, Adekanmbi, Victor, Adetokunboh, Olatunji O., Agudelo-Botero, Marcela, Aji, Budi, Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo, Alamneh, Alehegn Aderaw, Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour, Alanzi, Turki M., Albright, James, Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth, Alemu, Biresaw Wassihun, Alhassan, Robert Kaba, Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir, Ali, Saqib, Alinia, Cyrus, Alipour, Vahid, Amit, Arianna Maever L., Amugsi, Dickson A., Anbesu, Etsay Woldu, Ancuceanu, Robert, Anjomshoa, Mina, Ansari, Fereshteh, Antonio, Carl Abelardo T., Anvari, Davood, Arabloo, Jalal, Arora, Amit, Artanti, Kurnia Dwi, Asemahagn, Mulusew A., Asmare, Wondwossen Niguse, Atout, Maha Moh’d Wahbi, Ausloos, Marcel, Awoke, Nefsu, Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala, Ayanore, Martin Amogre, Aynalem, Yared Asmare, Ayza, Muluken Altaye, Azene, Zelalem Nigussie, Darshan, B. B., Badiye, Ashish D., Baig, Atif Amin, Bakkannavar, Shankar M., Banach, Maciej, Banik, Palash Chandra, Bärnighausen, Till Winfried, Basaleem, Huda, Bayati, Mohsen, Baye, Bayisa Abdissa, Bedi, Neeraj, Belay, Sefealem Assefa, Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth, Bhandari, Dinesh, Bhardwaj, Nikha, Bhardwaj, Pankaj, Bhutta, Zulfiqar A., Bijani, Ali, Birhan, Tsegaye Adane, Birihane, Binyam Minuye, Bitew, Zebenay Workneh, Bohlouli, Somayeh, Bohluli, Mahdi, Bojia, Hunduma Amensisa, Boloor, Archith, Brady, Oliver J., Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi, Brunoni, Andre R., Budhathoki, Shyam S., Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina, Butt, Zahid A., Cárdenas, Rosario, Castaldelli-Maia, Joao Mauricio, Castro, Franz, Cernigliaro, Achille, Charan, Jaykaran, Chatterjee, Pranab, Chatterjee, Souranshu, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Chaturvedi, Sarika, Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir, Chu, Dinh-Toi, Collison, Michael L., Cook, Aubrey J., Cork, Michael A., Couto, Rosa A. S., Dagnew, Baye, Dai, Haijiang, Dandona, Lalit, Dandona, Rakhi, Daneshpajouhnejad, Parnaz, Darwesh, Aso Mohammad, Darwish, Amira Hamed, Daryani, Ahmad, Das, Jai K., Gupta, Rajat Das, Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto, Davis, Adrian Charles, Weaver, Nicole Davis, Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar, Deribe, Kebede, Desalew, Assefa, Deshpande, Aniruddha, Dessie, Awrajaw, Deuba, Keshab, Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda, Dhimal, Meghnath, Dhungana, Govinda Prasad, Diaz, Daniel, Didarloo, Alireza, Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi, Doan, Linh Phuong, Duko, Bereket, Duraes, Andre Rodrigues, Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura, Earl, Lucas, Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed, Tantawi, Maha El, Elema, Teshome Bekele, Elhabashy, Hala Rashad, El-Jaafary, Shaimaa I., Faris, Pawan Sirwan, Faro, Andre, Farzadfar, Farshad, Feigin, Valery L., Feleke, Berhanu Elfu, Ferede, Tomas Y., Fischer, Florian, Foigt, Nataliya A., Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin, Franklin, Richard Charles, Gad, Mohamed M., Gaidhane, Shilpa, Gardner, William M., Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle, Gebregiorgis, Birhan Gebresillassie, Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork, Gebremichael, Berhe, Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz, Gilani, Syed Amir, Ginindza, Themba G., Glagn, Mustefa, Golechha, Mahaveer, Gonfa, Kebebe Bekele, Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia, Gudi, Nachiket, Guido, Davide, Guled, Rashid Abdi, Guo, Yuming, Hamidi, Samer, Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes, Hasaballah, Ahmed I., Hassan, Amr, Hayat, Khezar, Hegazy, Mohamed I., Heidari, Behnam, Henry, Nathaniel J., Herteliu, Claudiu, de Hidru, Hagos Degefa, Ho, Hung Chak, Hoang, Chi Linh, Holla, Ramesh, Hon, Julia, Hosseini, Mostafa, Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi, Househ, Mowafa, Hsairi, Mohamed, Hu, Guoqing, Huda, Tanvir M., Hwang, Bing-Fang, Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel, Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen, Ilic, Irena M., Ilic, Milena D., Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja, Iqbal, Usman, Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi, Islam, M. Mofizul, Iwu, Chidozie C. D., Iwu, Chinwe Juliana, Jain, Animesh, Janodia, Manthan Dilipkumar, Javaheri, Tahereh, John-Akinola, Yetunde O., Johnson, Kimberly B., Joukar, Farahnaz, Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy, Kabir, Ali, Kalankesh, Leila R., Kalhor, Rohollah, Kamath, Ashwin, Kamyari, Naser, Kanchan, Other Tanuj, Kapoor, Neeti, Matin, Behzad Karami, Karimi, Salah Eddin, Kasaye, Habtamu Kebebe, Kassahun, Getinet, Kassebaum, Nicholas J., Kayode, Gbenga A., Karyani, Ali Kazemi, Keiyoro, Peter Njenga, Kelkay, Bayew, Khalid, Nauman, Khan, Md. Nuruzzaman, Khatab, Khaled, Khater, Amir M., Khater, Mona M., Khatib, Mahalaqua Nazli, Kim, Yun Jin, Kimokoti, Ruth W., Kinyoki, Damaris K., Kisa, Adnan, Kisa, Sezer, Kosen, Soewarta, Krishan, Kewal, Kulkarni, Vaman, Kumar, G. Anil, Kumar, Manasi, Kumar, Nithin, Kumar, Pushpendra, Kurmi, Om P., Kusuma, Dian, Vecchia, Carlo La, Lad, Sheetal D., Lami, Faris Hasan, Landires, Iván, Lansingh, Van Charles, Lasrado, Savita, Lee, Paul H., LeGrand, Kate E., Letourneau, Ian D., Lewycka, Sonia, Li, Bingyu, Li, Ming-Chieh, Li, Shanshan, Liu, Xuefeng, Lodha, Rakesh, Lopez, Jaifred Christian F., Louie, Celia, Machado, Daiane Borges, Maled, Venkatesh, Maleki, Shokofeh, Malta, Deborah Carvalho, Mamun, Abdullah A., Manafi, Navid, Mansournia, Mohammad Ali, Mapoma, Chabila Christopher, Marczak, Laurie B., Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio, Mehndiratta, Man Mohan, Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola, Mekonnen, Tefera Chane, Mendoza, Walter, Menezes, Ritesh G., Mengesha, Endalkachew Worku, Mersha, Abera M., Miller, Ted R., Mini, G. K., Mirrakhimov, Erkin M., Misra, Sanjeev, Moghadaszadeh, Masoud, Mohammad, Dara K., Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah, Mohammed, Jemal Abdu, Mohammed, Shafiu, Mokdad, Ali H., Montero-Zamora, Pablo A., Moradi, Masoud, Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah, Moraga, Paula, Mosser, Jonathan F., Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam, Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi, Munro, Sandra B., Muriithi, Moses K., Mustafa, Ghulam, Muthupandian, Saravanan, Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman, Naik, Gurudatta, Naimzada, Mukhammad David, Nangia, Vinay, Nascimento, Bruno Ramos, Nayak, Vinod C., Ndejjo, Rawlance, Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith, Negoi, Ionut, Nguefack-Tsague, Georges, Ngunjiri, Josephine W., Nguyen, Cuong Tat, Nguyen, Diep Ngoc, Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi, Nigussie, Samuel Negash, Nigussie, Tadesse T. N., Nikbakhsh, Rajan, Nnaji, Chukwudi A., Nunez-Samudio, Virginia, Oancea, Bogdan, Oghenetega, Onome Bright, Olagunju, Andrew T., Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola, Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun, Omer, Muktar Omer, Onwujekwe, Obinna E., Ortega-Altamirano, Doris V., Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron E., Otstavnov, Nikita, Otstavnov, Stanislav S., Owolabi, Mayowa O., Mahesh, P. A., Padubidri, Jagadish Rao, Pana, Adrian, Pandey, Anamika, Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R., Pangaribuan, Helena Ullyartha, Parsekar, Shradha S., Pasupula, Deepak Kumar, Patel, Urvish K., Pathak, Ashish, Pathak, Mona, Pattanshetty, Sanjay M., Patton, George C., Paulos, Kebreab, Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino, Pickering, Brandon V., Pinheiro, Marina, Piwoz, Ellen G., Pokhrel, Khem Narayan, Pourjafar, Hadi, Prada, Sergio I., Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga, Syed, Zahiruddin Quazi, Rabiee, Mohammad, Rabiee, Navid, Rahim, Fakher, Rahimzadeh, Shadi, Rahman, Azizur, Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur, Rahmani, Amir Masoud, Rai, Rajesh Kumar, Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal, Rao, Sowmya J., Rastogi, Prateek, Rathi, Priya, Rawaf, David Laith, Rawaf, Salman, Rawassizadeh, Reza, Rawat, Rahul, Rawat, Ramu, Regassa, Lemma Demissie, Rego, Maria Albertina Santiago, Reiner, Robert C., Reshmi, Bhageerathy, Rezapour, Aziz, Ribeiro, Ana Isabel, Rickard, Jennifer, Roever, Leonardo, Rumisha, Susan Fred, Rwegerera, Godfrey M., Sagar, Rajesh, Sajadi, S. Mohammad, Salem, Marwa Rashad, Samy, Abdallah M., Santric-Milicevic, Milena M., Saraswathy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer, Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, Sartorius, Benn, Sathian, Brijesh, Saxena, Deepak, Sbarra, Alyssa N., Sengupta, Debarka, Senthilkumaran, Subramanian, Sha, Feng, Shafaat, Omid, Shaheen, Amira A., Shaikh, Masood Ali, Shalash, Ali S., Shannawaz, Mohammed, Sheikh, Aziz, Shetty, B. Suresh Kumar, Shetty, Ranjitha S., Shibuya, Kenji, Shiferaw, Wondimeneh Shibabaw, Shin, Jae Il, Silva, Diego Augusto Santos, Singh, Narinder Pal, Singh, Pushpendra, Singh, Surya, Sintayehu, Yitagesu, Skryabin, Valentin Yurievich, Skryabina, Anna Aleksandrovna, Soheili, Amin, Soltani, Shahin, Sorrie, Muluken Bekele, Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth, Steuben, Krista M., Sudaryanto, Agus, Sufiyan, Mu’awiyyah Babale, Swartz, Scott J., Tadesse, Eyayou Girma, Tamiru, Animut Tagele, Tapak, Leili, Tareque, Md. Ismail, Tarigan, Ingan Ukur, Tesema, Getayeneh Antehunegn, Tesfay, Fisaha Haile, Teshome, Abinet, Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse, Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman, Thapar, Rekha, Thomas, Nihal, Topor-Madry, Roman, Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto, Traini, Eugenio, Tran, Bach Xuan, Truong, Phuong N., Tsegaye, Berhan Tsegaye B. T., Ullah, Irfan, Umeokonkwo, Chukwuma David, Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran, Upadhyay, Era, Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi, VanderHeide, John David, Violante, Francesco S., Vo, Bay, Wado, Yohannes Dibaba, Waheed, Yasir, Wamai, Richard G., Wang, Fang, Wang, Yafeng, Wang, Yuan-Pang, Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana, Wiens, Kirsten E., Wiysonge, Charles Shey, Woyczynski, Lauren, Wu, Ai-Min, Wu, Chenkai, Yamada, Tomohide, Yaya, Sanni, Yeshaneh, Alex, Yeshaw, Yigizie, Yeshitila, Yordanos Gizachew, Yilma, Mekdes Tigistu, Yip, Paul, Yonemoto, Naohiro, Yosef, Tewodros, Younis, Mustafa Z., Yousuf, Abdilahi Yousuf, Yu, Chuanhua, Yu, Yong, Yuce, Deniz, Zafar, Shamsa, Zaidi, Syed Saoud, Zaki, Leila, Zakzuk, Josefina, Zamanian, Maryam, Zar, Heather J., Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich, Zastrozhina, Anasthasia, Zelellw, Desalege Amare, Zhang, Yunquan, Zhang, Zhi-Jiang, Zhao, Xiu-Ju George, Zodpey, Sanjay, Zuniga, Yves Miel H. and Hay, Simon I. (2021) Mapping inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding in low- and middle-income countries, 2000–2018. Nature Human Behaviour, 5 (8) . pp. 1027-1045. ISSN 2397-3374 [Article] (doi:10.1038/s41562-021-01108-6)

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Abstract

Abstract: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF)—giving infants only breast-milk for the first 6 months of life—is a component of optimal breastfeeding practices effective in preventing child morbidity and mortality. EBF practices are known to vary by population and comparable subnational estimates of prevalence and progress across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are required for planning policy and interventions. Here we present a geospatial analysis of EBF prevalence estimates from 2000 to 2018 across 94 LMICs mapped to policy-relevant administrative units (for example, districts), quantify subnational inequalities and their changes over time, and estimate probabilities of meeting the World Health Organization’s Global Nutrition Target (WHO GNT) of ≥70% EBF prevalence by 2030. While six LMICs are projected to meet the WHO GNT of ≥70% EBF prevalence at a national scale, only three are predicted to meet the target in all their district-level units by 2030.

Item Type: Article
Keywords (uncontrolled): Developing world, Nutrition disorders, Risk factors
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 33744
Notes on copyright: © The Author(s) 2021
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
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Depositing User: Jisc Publications Router
Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2021 11:45
Last Modified: 06 Oct 2021 11:45
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/33744

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