Effect of COVID-19 quarantine on the sleep quality and the depressive symptom levels of university students in Jordan during the spring of 2020

Saadeh, Heba, Saadeh, Maha ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0119-5623, Almobaideen, Wesam, Al Refaei, Assem, Shewaikani, Nour, Al Fayez, Reem Qadan, Khawaldah, Hamzah, Abu-Shanab, Sobuh and Al-Hussaini, Maysa (2021) Effect of COVID-19 quarantine on the sleep quality and the depressive symptom levels of university students in Jordan during the spring of 2020. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12 , 605676. pp. 1-13. ISSN 1664-0640 [Article] (doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.605676)

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Objectives: This study was designed to assess the effect of COVID-19 home quarantine and its lifestyle challenges on the sleep quality and mental health of a large sample of undergraduate University students in Jordan. It is the first study applied to the Jordanian population. The aim was to investigate how quarantine for several weeks changed the students' habits and affected their mental health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random representative sample of 6,157 undergraduate students (mean age 19.79 ± 1.67 years, males 28.7%) from the University of Jordan through voluntarily filling an online questionnaire. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to assess sleep quality and depressive symptoms, respectively. Results: The PSQI mean score for the study participants was 8.1 ± 3.6. The sleep quality of three-quarters of the participants was negatively affected by the extended quarantine. Nearly half of the participants reported poor sleep quality. The prevalence of poor sleep quality among participants was 76% (males: 71.5% and females: 77.8%). Similarly, the prevalence of the depressive symptoms was 71% (34% for moderate and 37% for high depressive symptoms), with females showing higher prevalence than males. The overall mean CES-D score for the group with low depressive symptoms is 9.3, for the moderate group is 19.8, while it is 34.3 for the high depressive symptoms group. More than half of the students (62.5%) reported that the quarantine had a negative effect on their mental health. Finally, females, smokers, and students with decreased income levels during the extended quarantine were the common exposures that are significantly associated with a higher risk of developing sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Mass and extended quarantine succeeded in controlling the spread of the COVID-19 virus; however, it comes with a high cost of potential psychological impacts. Most of the students reported that they suffer from sleeping disorders and had a degree of depressive symptoms. Officials should provide psychological support and clear guidance to help the general public to reduce these potential effects and overcome the quarantine period with minimum negative impacts.

Item Type: Article
Keywords (uncontrolled): Psychiatry, University students, mental health, COVID-19 quarantine, PSQI, CES-D
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Computer Science
Item ID: 32236
Notes on copyright: Copyright © 2021 Saadeh, Saadeh, Almobaideen, Al Refaei, Shewaikani, Al Fayez, Khawaldah, Abu-Shanab and Al-Hussaini. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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Depositing User: Jisc Publications Router
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2021 09:06
Last Modified: 08 Apr 2021 11:22
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/32236

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