Optimal training sequences to develop lower body force, velocity, power, and jump height: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Marshall, James, Bishop, Chris ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1505-1287, Turner, Anthony N. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5121-432X and Haff, G. Gregory (2021) Optimal training sequences to develop lower body force, velocity, power, and jump height: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 51 (6) . pp. 1245-1271. ISSN 0112-1642 [Article] (doi:10.1007/s40279-021-01430-z)

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Abstract

Background: Resistance training has been used to enhance a range of athletic abilities through correct manipulation of several variables such as training load, training volume, set configuration, and rest period. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the acute and chronic responses of lower body cluster, contrast, complex, and traditional training across a range of athletic performance outcomes (1-repetition maximum squat strength, jump height, peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and sprint time).
Methods: A database search was completed (SPORTDiscus, Medline and CINAHL) followed by a quality scoring system, which concluded with 41 studies being used in the meta-analysis. Effect sizes were calculated for acute and training intervention changes compared to baseline. For acute cluster training, effect sizes were used to represent differences between equated traditional and cluster sets.
Results: Acutely, contrast and cluster training can be implemented to enhance and maintain velocity. Complex training does not acutely show a performance-enhancing effect on jump performance.
Conclusion: When looking to develop exercise-specific force, the exercise should be completed closer to set failure with fewer repetitions still able to be completed, which can be achieved using complex or high-volume contrast training to pre-fatigue the lighter exercise. When the objective is to improve velocity for the target exercise, it can be combined with a heavier contrast pair to create a postactivation performance enhancing effect. Alternatively, cluster set designs can be used to maintain high velocities and reduce drop-off. Finally, traditional training is most effective for increasing squat 1-repetition maximum.

Item Type: Article
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > London Sport Institute > Strength and Conditioning at the London Sport Institute
Item ID: 31941
Notes on copyright: This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Sports Medicine. The final authenticated version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01430-z
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Chris Bishop
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2021 20:38
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2022 18:44
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/31941

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