Strength, rate of force development, power and reactive strength in adult male athletic populations post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - a systematic review and meta-analysis

Luca, Maestroni ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4489-8540, Read, Paul, Turner, Anthony N. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5121-432X, Korakakis, Vasileios and Papadopoulos, Konstantinos ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4489-8540 (2021) Strength, rate of force development, power and reactive strength in adult male athletic populations post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physical Therapy in Sport, 47 . pp. 91-104. ISSN 1466-853X [Article] (doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2020.11.024)

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Abstract

Background
Residual deficits in athletic performance are common despite rehabilitation guidelines following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction including criterion-based progressions to protect healing structures, ensure safe restoration of fundamental physical capacities, and guide appropriate return to sports activities. A synthesis of the available literature is warranted to examine the physical readiness to re-perform of athletic populations in the later stages of rehabilitation in comparison to healthy controls.

Objectives
To determine the level of strength, power, rate of force development, and reactive strength in adult males who are more than six months following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Methods
A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the Medline, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases and the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic
Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Studies including males only and assessed strength, power, rate of force development and reactive strength comparing performance to healthy controls were included. A meta-analysis was also performed to compute standardized mean differences (SMD ± 95% confidence intervals), calculated using Hedge’s g, and examine the effect of ACLR on these fundamental physical capacities.

Results
2023 articles were identified, of which 14 articles with similar level of evidence and methodological quality met the inclusion criteria. The most commonly investigated and impaired physical capacity was quadriceps (g= -0.89, 95% CI [-1.33,-0.44]) and hamstring strength (g= -0.44, 95% CI [-0.78,-0.10]). Only one study investigated rate of force development and none measuring reactive strength met our eligibility criteria.

Conclusions
Pooled data showed moderate evidence indicating large and small negative deficits on knee peak extension and flexion, respectively, in male adults at more than 6 months post anteriorcruciate ligament reconstruction. The magnitude of these differences are influenced by graft type and can be mitigated by targeted rehabilitation programs. Insufficient evidence is available in male adults following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to examine rate of force development and reactive strength.

Item Type: Article
Keywords (uncontrolled): ACL, Knee, Rehabilitation, Strength
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > London Sport Institute
Item ID: 31388
Notes on copyright: © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Kostas Papadopoulos
Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2020 19:12
Last Modified: 03 Feb 2021 18:24
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/31388

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