Working together: factors affecting the relationship between leadership and job satisfaction in Iranian HR departments

Nazarian, Alireza, Atkinson, Peter, Foroudi, Pantea ORCID logoORCID: and Soares, Anabela (2021) Working together: factors affecting the relationship between leadership and job satisfaction in Iranian HR departments. Journal of General Management, 46 (3) . pp. 229-245. ISSN 0306-3070 [Article] (doi:10.1177/0306307020968535)

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Implementation of HRM practices in Iran has been patchy and unenthusiastic despite them having been found to be beneficial in Western countries. To investigate this problem survey data were gathered from 63 private sector organizations in Iran, producing 325 usable responses, and were analysed using structural equation modelling. Our findings unexpectedly show that transactional leadership had a similar impact on balanced organizational culture to transformational leadership. Also, no relationship was found between balanced organizational culture and team working, or between team working and job satisfaction, which contradicts previous research.

We argue that, in HR departments in Iran, culturally generated attitudes towards aspects of HRM itself may produce low job satisfaction, and thus may compromise the implementation of HRM practices. We also argue that, since the cultural conditions that create these anomalies are common to other Middle Eastern and Southern Asian countries, our results can be generalised to these regions. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for practitioners.

Item Type: Article
Keywords (uncontrolled): Keywords: leadership style; organizational culture; job satisfaction; team working; professional and personal development
Research Areas: A. > Business School > Marketing, Branding and Tourism
Item ID: 31049
Notes on copyright: © The Author(s) 2020
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (
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Depositing User: Pantea Foroudi
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2020 08:46
Last Modified: 16 Jun 2022 15:54

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