Killing environmental campaigners: manifest and latent justifications

Ruggiero, Vincenzo ORCID: (2020) Killing environmental campaigners: manifest and latent justifications. Criminological Encounters, 3 (1) , 53. pp. 1-16. ISSN 2506-7583 [Article] (Published online first) (doi:10.26395/CE20030101)

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In 2018, at least two hundred land and environmental defenders were murdered, the deadliest year on record. This trend is growing but also spreading: killings were dispersed across twenty-four countries, compared to sixteen in 2015. With many killings unreported, and often uninvestigated, it is likely that the true number is far higher. The tide of violence is driven by intensified activity by companies which pursue profit in unexploited areas. This paper gives an account and classification of these killings, providing an analysis of the vast literature produced by environmental NGOs. Adopting a modified form of techniques of neutralization and drawing on the distinction between manifest and latent justifications, the paper examines the responses provided by official actors who are called to account for these killings.

Item Type: Article
Keywords (uncontrolled): campaigners, violence by proxy killing, justifications
Research Areas: A. > School of Law > Criminology and Sociology
Item ID: 29929
Notes on copyright: © 2020 Vincenzo Ruggiero. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
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Depositing User: Vincenzo Ruggiero
Date Deposited: 19 May 2020 08:17
Last Modified: 19 May 2020 08:17

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