Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency: genetic causes and animal models

Maharaj, Avinaash, Maudhoo, Ashwini, Chan, Li F., Novoselova, Tatiana ORCID logoORCID:, Prasad, Rathi, Metherell, Louise A. and Guasti, Leonardo (2019) Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency: genetic causes and animal models. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 189 . pp. 73-80. ISSN 0960-0760 [Article] (doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.02.012)


Hereditary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) resistance syndromes encompass the genetically heterogeneous isolated or Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency (FGD) and the distinct clinical entity known as Triple A syndrome. The molecular basis of adrenal resistance to ACTH includes defects in ligand binding, MC2R/MRAP receptor trafficking, cellular redox balance, cholesterol synthesis and sphingolipid metabolism. Biochemically, this manifests as ACTH excess in the setting of hypocortisolaemia. Triple A syndrome is an inherited condition involving a tetrad of adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, alacrima and neuropathy. FGD is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by the presence of isolated glucocorticoid deficiency, classically in the setting of preserved mineralocorticoid secretion. Primarily there are three established subtypes of the disease: FGD 1, FGD2 and FGD3 corresponding to mutations in the Melanocortin 2 receptor MC2R (25%), Melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein MRAP (20%), and Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein STAR (5–10%) respectively. Together, mutations in these 3 genes account for approximately half of cases. Whole exome sequencing in patients negative for MC2R, MRAP and STAR mutations, identified mutations in minichromosome maintenance 4 MCM4, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase NNT, thioredoxin reductase 2 TXNRD2, cytochrome p450scc CYP11A1, and sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase SGPL1 accounting for a further 10% of FGD. These novel genes have linked replicative and oxidative stress and altered redox potential as a mechanism of adrenocortical damage. However, a genetic diagnosis is still unclear in about 40% of cases. We describe here an updated list of FGD genes and provide a description of relevant mouse models that, despite some being flawed, have been precious allies in the understanding of FGD pathobiology.

Item Type: Article
Keywords (uncontrolled): ACTH resistance,Familial glucocorticoid deficiency, Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 28123
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Depositing User: Tatiana Novoselova
Date Deposited: 08 Nov 2019 14:43
Last Modified: 08 Nov 2022 21:31

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