Using unilateral strength, power and reactive strength tests to detect the magnitude and direction of asymmetry: A test-retest design

Bishop, Chris ORCID logoORCID:, Read, Paul, Chavda, Shyam ORCID logoORCID:, Jarvis, Paul ORCID logoORCID: and Turner, Anthony N. ORCID logoORCID: (2019) Using unilateral strength, power and reactive strength tests to detect the magnitude and direction of asymmetry: A test-retest design. Sports, 7 (3) . ISSN 2075-4663 [Article] (doi:10.3390/sports7030058)

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The aims of the present study were to determine test-retest reliability for unilateral strength and power tests used to quantify asymmetry and determine the consistency of both the magnitude and direction of asymmetry between test sessions. Twenty-eight recreational trained sport athletes performed unilateral isometric squat, countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) tests over two test sessions. Inter-limb asymmetry was calculated from both the best trial and as an average of three trials for each test. Test reliability was computed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV) and standard error of measurement (SEM). In addition, paired samples t-tests were used to determine systematic bias between test sessions and Kappa coefficients to report how consistently asymmetry favoured the same side. Within and between-session reliability ranged from moderate to excellent (ICC range = 0.70⁻0.96) and CV values ranged from 3.7⁻13.7% across tests. Significant differences in asymmetry between test sessions were seen for impulse during the isometric squat (p = 0.04; effect size = ⁻0.60) but only when calculating from the best trial. When computing the direction of asymmetry across test sessions, levels of agreement were fair to substantial for the isometric squat (Kappa = 0.29⁻0.64), substantial for the CMJ (Kappa = 0.64⁻0.66) and fair to moderate for the DJ (Kappa = 0.36⁻0.56). These results show that when asymmetry is computed between test sessions, the group mean is generally devoid of systematic bias; however, the direction of asymmetry shows greater variability and is often inter-changeable. Thus, practitioners should consider both the direction and magnitude of asymmetry when monitoring inter-limb differences in healthy athlete populations.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** From MDPI via Jisc Publications Router
** History: accepted 28-02-2019;
pub-electronic 04-03-2019.
Article number = 58
** Licence for this article:
Article number = e58
Keywords (uncontrolled): Inter-limb differences, limb dominance, variability
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > London Sport Institute > Strength and Conditioning at the London Sport Institute
Item ID: 26244
Notes on copyright: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
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Depositing User: Jisc Publications Router
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2019 10:50
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2022 19:15

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