Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites: Eco-environmental concerns, field studies, sustainability issues and future prospects

Saxena, Gaurav, Purchase, Diane ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8071-4385, Mulla, Sikandar I., Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya and Bharagava, Ram Naresh (2019) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites: Eco-environmental concerns, field studies, sustainability issues and future prospects. In: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Springer. . [Book Section] (Published online first) (doi:10.1007/398_2019_24)

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Abstract

Environmental contamination due to heavy metals (HMs) is of serious ecotoxicological concern worldwide because of their increasing use at industries. Due to non-biodegradable and persistent nature, HMs cause serious soil/water pollution and severe health hazards in living beings upon exposure. HMs can be genotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic in nature even at low concentration. They may also act as endocrine disruptors and induce developmental as well as neurological disorders and thus, their removal from our natural environment is crucial for the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. To cope with HM pollution, phytoremediation has emerged as a low-cost and eco-sustainable solution to conventional physico-chemical cleanup methods that require high capital investment and labor alter soil properties and disturb soil microflora. Phytoremediation is a green technology wherein plants and associated microbes are used to remediate HM-contaminated sites to safeguard the environment and protect public health. Hence, in view of the above, the present paper aims to examine the feasibility of phytoremediation as a sustainable remediation technology for the management of metals-contaminated sites. Therefore, this paper provides an in-depth review on both the conventional and novel phytoremediation approaches, evaluate their efficacy to remove toxic metals from our natural environment, explore current scientific progresses, field experiences and sustainability issues and revise world over trends in phytoremediation research for its wider recognition and public acceptance as a sustainable remediation technology for the management of contaminated sites in 21st century.

Item Type: Book Section
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 26181
Notes on copyright: This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of a chapter published in Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/398_2019_24.
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Depositing User: Diane Purchase
Date Deposited: 19 Feb 2019 09:50
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2021 01:30
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/26181

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