Heavy metals distribution and risk assessment in soil from an informal e-waste recycling site in Lagos State, Nigeria

Isimekhai, Khadijah, Garelick, Hemda ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4568-2300, Watt, John ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9771-4442 and Purchase, Diane ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8071-4385 (2017) Heavy metals distribution and risk assessment in soil from an informal e-waste recycling site in Lagos State, Nigeria. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24 (20) . pp. 17206-17219. ISSN 0944-1344 [Article] (doi:10.1007/s11356-017-8877-9)

PDF - Final accepted version (with author's formatting)
Download (3MB) | Preview


Informal e-waste recycling can pose a risk to human health and the environment, which this study endeavours to evaluate. The distribution of a number of heavy metals in soil from an informal recycling site in the largest market for used and new electronics and electrical equipment in West Africa was investigated. The potential bioavailability of heavy metals, extent of contamination, potential risk due to the recycling activities and impact of external factors such as rainfall were also assessed. The concentrations of all the metals tested were higher in area where burning of the waste occurred than the control site, suggesting an impact of the recycling activities on the soil. The order of total metal concentrations was Cu > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ni > Sb > Cr > Cd for both the dry and wet seasons. The total concentration of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were all significantly higher (p<0.001) in the dry season than in the wet season. The concentrations of Cu (329-7106 mg kg-1), Pb (115-9623 mg kg-1) and Zn (508-8178 mg kg-1) were consistently higher than international soil guideline values. Using a sequential extraction method, the potential bioavailability of the metals was indicated as Cd > Sb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. Whern the risk was assessed using the Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI), Cu was found to contribute the most to the potential ecological risk and Cd gave rise to the greatest concern due to its high toxic-response factor within the study site. Similarly, the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) suggested Cd posed the most risk in this site. This research establishes a high level of contamination in the study site and underscores the importance of applying the appropriate chemical speciation in risk assessment.

Item Type: Article
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 21932
Notes on copyright: This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research. The final authenticated version is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8877-9
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Diane Purchase
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2017 14:02
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2022 20:43
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/21932

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Activity Overview
6 month trend
6 month trend

Additional statistics are available via IRStats2.