Gastric response to increased meal viscosity assessed by echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging in humans

Fillery-Travis, Annette, Marciani, L., Gowland, P., Spiller, R., Manoj, P., Moore, R., Young, P., Al Sahab, S., Bush, D. and Wright, J. (2000) Gastric response to increased meal viscosity assessed by echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging in humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 130 (1) . pp. 122-127. ISSN 0022-3166 [Article]


Normal meals are highly viscous, and viscosity is a key factor in influencing gastric emptying of food. However, the process of meal dilution and mixing is difficult to assess with the use of conventional methods. The aim of this study was to validate an in vivo, novel, noninvasive, echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) technique, capable of monitoring the viscosity of a model meal, and to use this to investigate the effects of viscosity on gastric emptying, meal dilution and satiety. Healthy volunteers (n = 8) ingested 500 mL of locust bean gum (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 g/100 g), nonnutrient, liquid meals of varying viscosities, and labeled with a nonabsorbable marker, phenol red. Meal viscosity was calibrated against the water proton transverse relaxation rate (T2−1) in vitro before ingestion, thus viscosity was measured in vivo via EPI measurements of T2−1. Viscosity and dilution were also measured directly using nasogastric aspirates. Gastric volumes as measured by EPI, fullness, appetite and hunger were also assessed serially. Before ingestion, the log of initial meal viscosity was linearly related to T2−1 (n = 8, r2 = 0.95). Similarly, T2−1 measured in vivo was also linearly related to the viscosity of the aspirates (r2 = 0.88). All meals underwent rapid dilution, leading to a reduction in viscosity, which was greatest for the most viscous meal (P < 0.01). Surprisingly, despite the fact that the initial meal viscosity varied 1000-fold, there was only a small delay in gastric emptying (P for trend < 0.05). The area under the curve for satiety increased with initial meal viscosity, whereas that for hunger decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the viscosity of a meal in vivo can be measured noninvasively using EPI. The stomach responds to meal ingestion by rapid intragastric dilution, causing a reduction of meal viscosity, and gastric emptying is minimally delayed. However, increased viscosity is associated with more prolonged satiety.

Item Type: Article
Research Areas: A. > Work and Learning Research Centre
Item ID: 17750
Depositing User: Paul Stapleton
Date Deposited: 29 Sep 2015 10:17
Last Modified: 09 May 2017 11:02

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