Predicting onset of depression: the vulnerability to depression questionnaire

Moran, Patricia M., Bifulco, Antonia ORCID logoORCID:, Ball, Caroline and Campbell, Caroline (2001) Predicting onset of depression: the vulnerability to depression questionnaire. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40 (4) . pp. 411-427. ISSN 0144-6657 [Article] (doi:10.1348/014466501163896)


Objective. The development of a self-report questionnaire capable of assessing cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors for clinical depression is described. The Vulnerability to Depression Questionnaire (VDQ) was developed to provide a brief, economical alternative to the Self-Evaluation and Social Support interview (SESS; O'Connor & Brown, 1984), assessing negative evaluation of self, negative interaction with partner or child and lack of a support figure.

Design. The VDQ was tested in a prospective study of community-based women who were contacted on three occasions over the course of approximately 1 year, to: (i) compare the VDQ's capacity to categorize vulnerability compared with the SESS interview, and (ii) to test the VDQ's prediction of onset of clinical depression during the follow-up.

Method. Selected nondepressed respondents completed the VDQ and were interviewed to determine their vulnerability using the SESS. They were reinterviewed on two further occasions during the follow-up period, and the VDQ was also re-administered at the time of first follow-up. Onset of clinical depression during the follow-up was assessed by interview at each contact.

Results. Comparison of VDQ and SESS interview classification of participants' vulnerability at first contact indicated that the questionnaire had good sensitivity and specificity. Test-retest scores for the VDQ indicated satisfactory levels of reliability. VDQ scores also predicted onset of clinical depression in the follow-up period.

Conclusions. Results suggest that the VDQ is an economical and effective means of screening large populations for the purposes of risk assessment, to aid future research into clinical depression and to facilitate the implementation of intervention strategies.

Item Type: Article
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Psychology > Centre for Abuse and Trauma Studies (CATS)
A. > School of Science and Technology > Psychology
Item ID: 12623
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Natasa Blagojevic-Stokic
Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2014 08:18
Last Modified: 09 Feb 2020 16:06

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