Are penalty shoot-outs racist?
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The acceptance of penalty shoot-outs in the knockout stages of international football tournaments is based on the belief that they have face validity by involving a football skill, that they have a clear and quick decision criterion that settles the result shortly after the end of the game, and that they do not offer any in-built advantage to either of the competing nations. Following events in the 2006 World Cup, we decided to investigate whether there are grounds to believe that the results of penalty shoot-outs are predetermined. Specifically, we considered whether characteristics of national cultures explain the results of penalty shoot-outs and whether penalty shoot-outs offer an advantage to any nation.
VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey.
|Research Areas:||A. Middlesex University Schools and Centres > Business School > International Management and Innovation|
A. Middlesex University Schools and Centres > Business School > International Management and Innovation > International and Cross-cultural Management group
|Deposited On:||12 Oct 2011 05:53|
|Last Modified:||25 Feb 2015 14:10|
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