Sources and mass flows of xenobiotics in urban water cycles: an overview on current knowledge and data gaps.
Bester, Kai and Scholes, Lian N. L. and Wahlberg, Cajsa and McArdell, Christa (2008) Sources and mass flows of xenobiotics in urban water cycles: an overview on current knowledge and data gaps. Water Air and Soil Pollution:Focus, 8 (5-6). pp. 407-423. ISSN 1567-7230
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In this study, the current most relevant compounds in waste water are discussed in relation to data available on their sources and mass flows in waste water treatment. In most western European situations, the highest contributions to the mass flow of xenobiotics stem from household and services applications (e.g. personal care compounds, pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, fluorinated detergents etc.) as well as building and constructing environments (e.g. flame retardants, plasticizers, UV-Blockers and biocides), while the contribution from industrial point sources such as incineration industries e.g. coal, tar, steel and gas production (such as PAHs, PCBs, dioxins, etc.) as well as chemical industries are decreasing in relevance in terms of input and are of more local relevance nowadays. This paper considers current data and management strategies: such as mitigation and strategies for controlling xenobiotics at the source. However it also identifies major knowledge gaps relating to the behaviour and fate of organic pollutants in stormwater management, in bank- and soil infiltration as well as underground and soil passage of polluted waters. It also gives the major sources for a multitude of current day pollutants as well as emerging ones in a qualitative way. Keywords: xenobiotics, sources fluxes, mitigation, urban waters, source control
|Research Areas:||Middlesex University Schools and Centres > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences|
|Deposited On:||22 Feb 2010 14:01|
|Last Modified:||13 May 2014 15:51|
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