National trends in total cholesterol obscure heterogeneous changes in HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio: a pooled analysis of 458 population-based studies in Asian and Western countries

Taddei, Cristina, Jackson, Rod, Zhou, Bin, Bixby, Honor, Danaei, Goodarz, Di Cesare, Mariachiara ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3934-3364, Kuulasmaa, Kari, Hajifathalian, Kaveh, Bentham, James, Bennett, James E., Aekplakorn, Wichai, Cifkova, Renata, Dallongeville, Jean, De Bacquer, Dirk, Giampaoli, Simona, Gudnason, Vilmundur, Khang, Young-Ho, Laatikainen, Tiina, Mann, Jim I., Marques-Vidal, Pedro, Mensah, George A., Müller-Nurasyid, Martina, Ninomiya, Toshiharu, Petkeviciene, Janina, Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando, Servais, Jennifer, Söderberg, Stefan, Stavreski, Bill, Wilsgaard, Tom, Zdrojewski, Tomasz, Zhao, Dong, Stevens, Gretchen A., Savin, Stefan, Cowan, Melanie J., Riley, Leanne M., Ezzati, Majid and NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, (NCD-RisC) (2019) National trends in total cholesterol obscure heterogeneous changes in HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio: a pooled analysis of 458 population-based studies in Asian and Western countries. International Journal of Epidemiology . pp. 1-20. ISSN 0300-5771 (Published online first) (doi:10.1093/ije/dyz099)

[img]
Preview
PDF - Published version (with publisher's formatting)
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (715kB) | Preview
[img] PDF - Final accepted version (with author's formatting)
Restricted to Repository staff and depositor only until 18 July 2020.

Download (202kB)

Abstract

Background
Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol have opposite associations with coronary heart disease, multi-country reports of lipid trends only use total cholesterol (TC). Our aim was to compare trends in total, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in Asian and Western countries.

Methods
We pooled 458 population-based studies with 82.1 million participants in 23 Asian and Western countries. We estimated changes in mean total, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and mean total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio by country, sex and age group.

Results
Since ∼1980, mean TC increased in Asian countries. In Japan and South Korea, the TC rise was due to rising HDL cholesterol, which increased by up to 0.17 mmol/L per decade in Japanese women; in China, it was due to rising non-HDL cholesterol. TC declined in Western countries, except in Polish men. The decline was largest in Finland and Norway, at ∼0.4 mmol/L per decade. The decline in TC in most Western countries was the net effect of an increase in HDL cholesterol and a decline in non-HDL cholesterol, with the HDL cholesterol increase largest in New Zealand and Switzerland. Mean total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio declined in Japan, South Korea and most Western countries, by as much as ∼0.7 per decade in Swiss men (equivalent to ∼26% decline in coronary heart disease risk per decade). The ratio increased in China.

Conclusions
HDL cholesterol has risen and the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio has declined in many Western countries, Japan and South Korea, with only a weak correlation with changes in TC or non-HDL cholesterol.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Published version: © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association. 1
---
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
---
C.T., R.J., G.D. and M.E. designed the study. Members of the Country and Regional Data Group collected and reanalysed data and checked pooled data for accuracy of information about their study and other studies in their country. C.T. led data collection, conducted statistical analysis and prepared results. Members of the Pooled Analysis and Writing Group contributed to data collation and analysis and checked all data sources in consultation with the Country and Regional Data Group. C.T. and M.E. wrote the first draft of the report with input from other members of Pooled Analysis and Writing Group. Members of Country and Regional Data Group commented on draft report. M.E. is the guarantor forthe paper.
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 27255
Notes on copyright: Final accepted version: This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in International Journal of Epidemiology following peer review. The version of record NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, National trends in total cholesterol obscure heterogeneous changes in HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio: a pooled analysis of 458 population-based studies in Asian and Western countries, International Journal of Epidemiology, , dyz099, is available online at URL: https://academic.oup.com/ije/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ije/dyz099/5535677 and DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz099 via the OUP website.
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Mariachiara Di Cesare
Date Deposited: 29 Jul 2019 13:00
Last Modified: 10 Jul 2020 14:35
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/27255

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item

Full text downloads (NB count will be zero if no full text documents are attached to the record)

Downloads per month over the past year