International access to bibliographic data: MARC and MARC-related activities

Hopkinson, Alan (1984) International access to bibliographic data: MARC and MARC-related activities. Journal of Documentation, 40 (1). pp. 13-24. ISSN 0022-0418


Official URL:

This item is available in the Library Catalogue


Formats for the exchange of bibliographic data use the ISO 2709 record structure which started out as the structure for the Library of Congress MARC format. The UNISIST Reference Manual was an early international exchange format developed by ICSU-AB and Unesco and included cataloguing rules suitable for use by A & I Services. The national libraries developed UNIMARC under IFLA auspices as their exchange format since the national formats were not totally compatible. Unesco, concerned about the lack of compatibility between the major international exchange formats, sponsored a symposium, resulting from which a Common Communication Format was developed and ISO began work on a data element directory. International formats also exist for nuclear and agricultural information as well as for serials data. Other formats exist which are used internationally and have different structural characteristics. The International MARC Network Study Steering Committee has taken an interest in the exchange of bibliographic data and has organized a test of UNIMARC and supervised a UNIMARC Handbook to clarify the format. International exchange formats tend to acquire accompanying cataloguing rules: indeed they will only be really effective if there are internationally accepted cataloguing rules and authority files.

Item Type:Article
Research Areas:A. > Library and Student Support
Citations on ISI Web of Science:1
ID Code:2705
Deposited On:14 Aug 2009 12:53
Last Modified:01 Aug 2014 17:08

Repository staff only: item control page

Full text downloads (NB count will be zero if no full text documents are attached to the record)

Downloads per month over the past year