Long-term and recent trends in hypertension awareness, treatment and control in twelve high-income countries: an analysis of 123 nationally representative surveys

Zhou, Bin, Danaei, Goodarz, Stevens, Gretchen A., Bixby, Honor, Taddei, Cristina, Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M., solomon, Bethelehem, Riley, Leanne M., Di Cesare, Mariachiara, Iurilli, Nia and et, al. (2019) Long-term and recent trends in hypertension awareness, treatment and control in twelve high-income countries: an analysis of 123 nationally representative surveys. The Lancet, 394 (10199). pp. 639-651. ISSN 0140-6736 (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31145-6)

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Abstract

Background: Antihypertensive medicines are effective in reducing adverse cardiovascular events. Our aim was to compare hypertension awareness, treatment and control, and how they have changed over time, in high-income countries.

Methods: We used data on 526,336 participants aged 40-79 years in 123 national health examination surveys from 1976 to 2017 in twelve high-income countries: Australia, Canada, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA. We calculated the percent of participants with hypertension – defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or being on pharmacological treatment for hypertension – who were aware of their condition, who were treated, and whose hypertension was controlled (i.e. lower than 140/90 mmHg).

Findings: Canada, South Korea, Australia and the UK have the lowest prevalence of hypertension, and Finland the highest. In the 1980s and early 1990s, treatment rates were at most 40% and control rates were below 25% in most countries and age-sex groups. Over time, hypertension awareness and treatment increased and control rate improved in all twelve countries, with South Korea and Germany experiencing the largest improvements. Most of the increase occurred in the 1990s and early-mid 2000s, having plateaued since in most countries. Canada, Germany, South Korea and the USA have the highest rates of awareness, treatment and control, while Finland, Ireland, Japan and Spain the lowest. Even in the best performing countries, treatment coverage was at most 80% and control rates were below 70%.

Interpretation: Hypertension awareness, treatment and control have improved substantially in high-income countries since the 1980s and 1990s. However, control rates have plateaued in the past decade, at levels lower than those in high-quality hypertension programmes. There is substantial variation across countries in the rates of hypertension diagnosis, treatment and

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Published version: © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 26657
Notes on copyright: Accepted Manuscript: © 2019. This author's accepted manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
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Depositing User: Mariachiara Di Cesare
Date Deposited: 24 May 2019 15:14
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2019 00:22
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/26657

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