Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit: tumor markers and tumor promoters
Cole, Laurence A. and Butler, Stephen A. (2008) Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit: tumor markers and tumor promoters. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 53 . pp. 499-512. ISSN 0024-7758
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Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a heterogeneous glycoprotein hormone comprising an alpha-subunit and beta-subunit that can vary in peptide and carbohydrate structure. After conception, hCG produced by early trophoblast cells acts on luteinizing hormone (LH)/hCG receptor corpus luteum cells to promote progesterone production and establish maternal recognition of pregnancy. hCG is not simply 1 molecule, and 2 variants of hCG appear to have independent activities in promoting tumor cell growth, invasion and malignancy. Hyperglycosylated hCG (H-hCG), produced by cytotrophoblast cells, is a marker for cytotrophoblast cells and tumor marker for gestational trophoblastic diseases. H-hCG promotes growth and invasion in these cells during pregnancy implantation, and growth in varying degrees by many nontrophoblastic neoplasms. beta-hCG is a marker of poor prognosis shown to promote growth and invasion in vitro, suggesting autocrine growth factor properties. Vaccines to b-hCG have been successfully demonstrated, suggesting a potential adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment. Although sufficiently distinct in both structure and occurrence, similarities have been observed between H-hCG and beta-hCG as promoters of cell growth, invasion and malignancy. It is somewhat irregular for 2 structural variants of a molecule to have independent actions, actions very different to the gonadotropic function of the established hormone hCG.
PubMed PMID: 18720925
|Research Areas:||Middlesex University Schools and Centres > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences|
|Citations on ISI Web of Science:||6|
|Deposited On:||22 Jun 2009 09:26|
|Last Modified:||08 Jul 2013 06:56|
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