Features of postoperative immune suppression are reversible with interferon gamma and independent of interleukin-6 pathways

Longbottom, E. Rebecca and Torrance, Hew D. T. and Owen, Helen C. and Fragkou, Paraskevi C. and Hinds, Charles J. and Pearse, Rupert M. and O'Dwyer, Michael J. (2016) Features of postoperative immune suppression are reversible with interferon gamma and independent of interleukin-6 pathways. Annals of surgery, 264 (2). pp. 370-377. ISSN 0003-4932

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-6 pathways in postoperative immune suppression and to assess the reversibility of this phenomenon.

BACKGROUND
The postoperative period is characterized by increased IL-6 production and features of immune suppression. In vitro, IL-6 mediates anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) pathways. The significance of the immunomodulatory effects of IL-6 in the clinical setting of postoperative immune suppression remains unclear.

METHODS
Patients over 45 years old undergoing elective surgery, involving the gastrointestinal tract, were recruited. IL-6 levels were assayed using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay preoperatively, and at 24 and 48 hours. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers were cultured in perioperative serum and CD14Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR (HLA-DR) [monocyte HLA-DR (mHLA-DR)] geometric mean florescent intensity was measured in the presence and absence of IL-6 neutralizing antibody and recombinant IFN-γ.

RESULTS
Of the 108 patients, 41 developed a postoperative infection. The IL-6 levels increased 19-fold from the preoperative sample to 24 hours postoperatively (P < 0.0001). Higher IL-6 levels at 24 (P = 0.0002) and 48 hours (P = 0.003) were associated with subsequent postoperative infectious complications. mHLA-DR mean florescent intensity fell when healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with postoperative serum compared with preoperative serum (P = 0.008). This decrease was prevented by the presence of IFN-γ in the culture media, but not by the presence of IL-6-neutralizing antibody.

CONCLUSIONS
IL-6 levels increase after a major surgery and are associated with an increased susceptibility to postoperative infections. Serum obtained from postoperative patients induces an immunosuppressive response, reflected in reduced mHLA-DR levels, mediated through IL-6 independent pathways and is reversible with IFN-γ. These data may have therapeutic implications for the prevention of infection in patients undergoing major surgery.

Item Type: Article
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Natural Sciences
Item ID: 19094
Notes on copyright: This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Annals of Surgery. Longbottom, E. R., Torrance, H. D., Owen, H. C., Fragkou, P. C., Hinds, C. J., Pearse, R. M., & O’Dwyer, M. J. (2016). Features of Postoperative Immune Suppression Are Reversible With Interferon Gamma and Independent of Interleukin-6 Pathways. Annals of Surgery, 264(2), 370-377. doi:10.1097/sla.0000000000001484
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Depositing User: Helen Roberts
Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2016 10:57
Last Modified: 01 Aug 2017 03:04
URI: http://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/19094

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