The mechanisms of detoxification of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V) in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris

Pantoja Munoz, Leonardo, Purchase, Diane, Jones, Huw, Raab, A., Urgast, D., Feldmann, J. and Garelick, Hemda ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4568-2300 (2016) The mechanisms of detoxification of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V) in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris. Aquatic Toxicology, 175 . pp. 56-72. ISSN 0166-445X

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Abstract

The response of Chlorella vulgaris when challenged by As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was assessed through experiments on adsorption, efflux and speciation of arsenic (reduction, oxidation, methylation and chelation with glutathione/phytochelatin [GSH/PC]). Our study indicates that at high concentrations of phosphate (1.62 mM of HPO42−), upon exposure to As(V), cells are able to shift towards methylation of As(V) rather than PC formation. Treatment with As(V) caused a moderate decrease in intracellular pH and a strong increase in the concentration of free thiols (GSH). Passive surface adsorption was found to be negligible for living cells exposed to DMA and As(V). However, adsorption of As(III) was observed to be an active process in C. vulgaris, because it did not show saturation at any of the exposure periods. Chelation of As(III) with GS/PC and to a lesser extent hGS/hPC is a major detoxification mechanism employed by C. vulgaris cells when exposed to As(III). The increase of bound As-GS/PC complexes was found to be strongly related to an increase in concentration of As(III) in media. C. vulgaris cells did not produce any As-GS/PC complex when exposed to As(V). This may indicate that a reduction step is needed for As(V) complexation with GSH/PC. C. vulgaris cells formed DMASV-GS upon exposure to DMA independent of the exposure period. As(III) triggers the formation of arsenic complexes with PC and homophytochelatins (hPC) and their compartmentalisation to vacuoles. A conceptual model was devised to explain the mechanisms involving ABCC1/2 transport. The potential of C. vulgaris to bio-remediate arsenic from water appeared to be highly selective and effective without the potential hazard of reducing As(V) to As(III), which is more toxic to humans.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Available online 3 March 2016
Keywords (uncontrolled): ABC/MRP; Arsenic; Chlorella vulgaris; Flow cytometry; ICP–MS; Oxidative stress; Intracellular pH; Efflux
Research Areas: A. > School of Science and Technology > Urban Pollution Research Centre (UPRC)
Item ID: 19081
Useful Links:
Depositing User: Hemda Garelick
Date Deposited: 01 Apr 2016 09:14
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2019 04:09
URI: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/id/eprint/19081

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